Hubble Discovers Bizarre Galaxy --"Astonishing Gigantic 'See-Through' Blob With No Dark Matter"

Hubble Discovers Bizarre Galaxy --

Hubble Discovers Bizarre Galaxy --"Astonishing Gigantic 'See-Through' Blob With No Dark Matter"

Weird and invisible, dark matter has not been directly observed-no one is sure what it is, exactly-but it is key to explaining the movement of galaxies in space. Dark matter seems to be needed to draw in sufficient material to form the galaxy and its stars, and halos of dark matter keep galaxies from spinning apart as they rotate.

Astronomers have discovered a galaxy that upends what we thought about galaxies. He is also one of the leaders of the Dragonfly Telescope Array. Dragonfly saw it as a diffuse object with some structures in it; Sloan imaged it as a collection of distinct objects. This discovery is unpredicted by current theories on the distribution of dark matter and its influence on galaxy formation.

You see something like this, and you do sort of scratch your head. "It is literally a see-through galaxy".

This large, fuzzy-looking galaxy is so diffuse.

"There are simulations of the universe starting back near the Big Bang that show dark matter was produced and actually gravitationally attracted normal matter to it, and that's how the galaxies were formed", said Dan Bauer, a physicist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, who studies dark matter and did not work on the paper. Based on these data the team discovered that NGC 1052-DF2 larger than the Milky Way, but contains about 250 times fewer stars, leading it to be classified as an ultra diffuse galaxy. They followed the motion of 10 star clusters to work out how much mass the galaxy had.

The answers were pretty surprising. Instead, the clusters were moving at about 28,000 kilometres per hour. The ordinary matter (also called baryonic matter) in DF2 accounted for the entire mass of the galaxy.

This Hubble Space Telescope imaging of NGC1052-DF2 was obtained 2016 November 10, using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).

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An global team of researchers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and several other observatories have, for the first time, uncovered a galaxy that is missing most - if not all - of its dark matter. But in this case, there's a minimal difference between the two. Researchers call the second proposed solution modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), which suggests that if the laws are properly tweaked, the universe would make sense without dark matter. "How do you create a galaxy without dark matter first?"

Finding a total lack of dark matter might also, paradoxically, give scientists evidence for the existence of the odd stuff.

The obvious question is how you end up with a galaxy like NGC1052-DF2. That gas can then, in principle, contract and form a little galaxy (a "tidal dwarf").

According to the paper, the smaller galaxy could have formed from gas that was collapsing towards a forming NGC 1052 but that fragmented off before it got there.

But each of these would have to be examined in detail to determine if it could form the distinct features of NGC1052-DF2.

The global team of astronomers in this study consists of P. van Dokkum (Yale University, USA), S. Danieli (Yale University, USA), Y. Cohen (Yale University, USA), A. Merritt (Yale University, USA; Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany), A.J. Romanowsky (San José State University, USA; University of California Observatories, USA), R. Abraham (University of Toronto, Canada), J. Brodie (University of California Observatories, USA), C. Conroy (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), D. Lockhurst (University of Toronto, Canada), L. Mowla (Yale University, USA), E. O'Sullivan (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), and J. Zhang (University of Toronto, Canada). There are ten bright clusters of stars in the galaxy, but they orbit the center of the galaxy much slower than expected. But dark matter theorists have relied heavily on the idea of "abundance matching", which links the masses of dark matter halos closely to the masses of the galaxies they surround. Of course, they point out that most of the things we've found that look similar have turned out to have an excess of dark matter, so there's a lot we still need to figure out here.

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